WARNING: The following contains spoilers for Chapter 75 of the Dragon Ball Super manga, by Akira Toriyama, Toyotarou, Caleb Cook, and Brandon Bovia, available now in English from Viz Media.
Chapter 75 of Dragon Ball Super finally showed the fruits of Vegeta's labor after his training with Lord Beerus. Understanding the tranquil nature of Ultra Instinct doesn't suit him, Vegeta chooses to walk a different path by studying under Lord Beerus, who wants to prove Destruction is superior to Ultra Instinct. In his battle against Granolah, Vegeta unveils a new transformation he dubs Ultra Ego.
After Vegeta withstands Granolah's attacks for even longer than Goku managed with Ultra Instinct, the Saiyan Prince powers up into his new form for the first time. As explained by Lord Beerus, the power of Destruction is also instinctual, with the user's mind focused on Destruction and nothing else. The battle against Granolah is not fought with the Universe hanging in the balance, allowing Vegeta to dedicate himself wholly to the battle and setting him up for his first ascension to the power of a Destroyer God.
As the Saiyan Prince powers up, a weary Goku can sense Vegeta's usual god ki is different now, implying it is now that of a Destroyer. Initially, it seems as though Vegeta has achieved a fairly standard power-up as he casually swats Granolah back and forth across the battlefield like a space volleyball. When Granolah rights himself and lands a solid blow on Vegeta, it's revealed there is more to Vegeta's new power than meets the eye.
After Granolah's attack, Vegeta claims the hotter his battle spirit burns, the more powerful he becomes. His new form has the ability to increase his power even further upon receiving damage in battle. When Granolah notes that this is the complete opposite of Goku's technique, Vegeta declares his own technique is superior and names it Ultra Ego. A fitting name -- the power itself reeks of arrogance as Vegeta gleefully refuses to dodge Granolah's attacks, knowing he can use them to get even stronger.
Lord Beerus taught Vegeta that this fixation on Destruction, driven by instinct, grants the user unbounded strength. While Ultra Ego's power is certainly limitless in theory, Vegeta's battle against Granolah proves the form is completely dependent on the power of the person wielding it. Vegeta's endurance clearly skyrocketed from his Super Saiyan Blue form, using Ultra Ego to take hits that surely would have finished him otherwise, but it's not enough.
Endurance is key to Ultra Ego's power, and once Vegeta runs out of stamina, he no longer gets stronger from taking damage. Similar to the blowback from Goku wielding Ultra Instinct without proper training in the Tournament of Power, once the power of Ultra Ego exceeds what Vegeta's body can withstand, the battle is over. After all, this is the power wielded by actual divine beings, while Vegeta is mortal. The Saiyan Prince will have to continue training his body to withstand intense attacks for longer periods of time in order to properly utilize Ultra Ego's limitless potential.
Despite being the power of Destruction -- bearing in mind that Ultra Ego is just Vegeta's name for this form -- Vegeta doesn't rely heavily on the technique of Destruction itself while in this form. Perhaps he learned from Toppo in the Tournament of Power that overdependence on Destruction doesn't necessarily ensure victory. Vegeta does summon Destruction energy in a last-ditch effort to defeat Granolah, but given his weakened state, Granolah is able to overpower and destroy the massive attack.
Ultra Ego is truly the opposite of Ultra Instinct in every way, perfectly suited to Vegeta's refusal to ride Goku's coattails. Instead of having a tranquil heart and avoiding attacks, Ultra Ego turns Vegeta into a savage who delights in receiving damage. Considering how much more successful Vegeta was against Granolah using Ultra Ego than Goku was using Ultra Instinct, it just might be possible that Vegeta's technique is superior after all. Hopefully, future Dragon Ball Super chapters will tell how far this technique can take Vegeta until he has to learn something else to keep up with Goku.